EUROPEAN TOUR DATES
February 19 – Berlin Eissporthalle
February 20 – Offenbach Stadthalle
February 21 – Mannheim Musen Saal
February 22 – Munich Deutsches Museum
February 23 – Erlangen Stadthalle
February 24 – Hamburg Audimax
February 25 – Dusseldorf Philipshalle
February 26 – Nancy Foire Des Expositions
February 27 – Rheims Opera
February 28 – Rouen Parc Exposition
March 1 – Nantes Palais De La Beaujoire
March 3 – Dijon Palais Des Congres
March 4 – Lille Chapiteau Parking De La Foire Internationale
March 6 – Paris Palais Des Congres
March 8 – Bordeaux Chapiteau Campus De Talence
March 9 – Pau Parc Des Expositions
March 11 – Pomplona Pabellon Araitasuma
March 12 – Valencia Pabellon Deportivo Marcol
March 13 – Barcelona Neuvo Pabellon De Bardalona
March 15 – Marseille Chapiteau
March 17 – Brussels Cirque Royale
March 19 – Oxford Newtheatre
March 20 – London Hammersmith Odeon
March 21 – Portsmouth Guildhall
March 22 – Birmingham Odeon
March 23 – Newcastle City Hall
March 24 – Glasgow Apollo
March 25 – Manchester Apollo
March 26 – Liverpool Empire
March 27 – Croydon Fairfield Halls
March 28 – London Hammersmith Odeon
Personal/Tour Management: Andrew Graham-Stewart
Tony Powell (Stage Manager and Lights)
Robbie Sworder (Sound)
Chris Blake (Stage)
John Abbott (Stage)
George Cwik (Technician/Stage)
Robbie Cwik (Technician/Stage)
Steve Moles (PA)
Simon Deerine (Stage)
Des Seal (Trucking)
All concerts feature specially designed show by Laserium Laserists:
Ron Pollock and Jim Hannigan
German concerts promoted-by Lippmann and Rau
French concerts promoted by Gilbert Coulier/Assaad Debs except-Paris by Frederic Serfati/Assaad Debs
Spanish concerts promoted by Guy Mercader
Brussels concert promoted by Ludo Debruyn
British concerts promoted by Adrian Hopkins in association with Andrew Graham Stewart
Programme written and edited by Miles
KORA POLYPHONIC SYNTHESIZER
MXR DIGITAL DELAY
RICKENBACKER 12 STRING
KUSTOM COMBO AMP
LYRICON ELECTRIC FLUTE
FENDER RHODES ELECTRIC PIANO
POLYESTER CUSTOM BUILT:-
MOOG KEYBOARD CONTROLLER
PROJECT ELECTRONIC CUSTOM SEQUENCE & SYNTHESIZER BANK
THE TANGERINE DREAM HISTORY
Edgar Froese began Tangerine Dream in 1967 but had been staying in groups before that. He was born in Tilsit on June 6, 1944 and spent five years studying painting and sculpture before getting into music. His musical taste when he was young was mostly classical but in the grand tradition of art schools he became involved with a rock and roll band. As far as we are concerned, his musical history began one day in 1965:
”The first time I heard The Rolling Stones was in the middle of a rehearsal with a rock 'n' roll group. I was first of all attracted by their looks. Their faces were absolutely damaged. They were the absolute opposite of The Beatles... ”
He was playing with a group called The Ones. They had a conventional lineup of organ, lead guitar, bass guitar, drums and a vocalist. Edgar played lead guitar: ”...I can't sing, that's my problem. ”
They began playing gigs round Berlin and then, in 1966, released a single: ”Lady Greengrass" on the Starclub label from Hamburg, now very rare.
”Lady Greengrass” though not written by Edgar, contains the memorable line: ”Pop ! The trees turn tangerine”. A hint of things to come, maybe. Edgar explained it to me very simply: ”It's about dope.”
The flipside, ”Love of Mine” was co-written by Edgar and shows him in his 'soul' period.
In the summer of 66 they played a season in Cadaques, an exclusive artistic seaside resort about thirty miles from Barcelona in Spain. It was here that Edgar met the surrealist painter Salvador Dali. Not just met him but played in his famous villa.
”This was the biggest change I ever had in music” said Edgar. ”By seeing the way he was working, talking and thinking, I found that everything was possible. I thought that I would do the same as he did in painting in music.”
Edgar and The Ones returned to Berlin and he began to investigate modern contemporary and electronic music. And there were some amazing things to hear: In electronics Milton Babbitt, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Xenakis, Toshi Ichyanagi and many others were splicing tapes, speeding them up, distorting sounds and generating notes through a variety of new techniques. The technical barriers were being broken.
John Cage, Morton Subotnick, Luciano Berio and others were extending the range of musical possibilities and the idea of what was music. Berlin, with its curious hothouse island existence, had massive cultural grants which meant that many of the best experimental composers were often visiting or performing in the city. There was a lot to listen and find out about.
In 1967 The Ones returned for another season in Cadaques and again saw Dali. They did a concert in his villa, making music to go with his ”Christ Statue” and working on a television film about Dali with the French producer J.C. Averty.
By now, the newly emerging underground scene had been breeding and in just about every European capitol and in every small artistic community there was now a small community of drug experimenters, mystics, poets, lady astrologers, 'Happening' artists and philosophers. The spin-off from the explosive London and Californian Underground scenes which scattered hippies and misfits in kaftans and bells across Europe like grapeshot.
Underground newspapers started, people bought UV lights to look at their psychedelic posters with and smooth talking space cadets arrived with tabs of acid made in London or San Francisco. They were exclusive little communities of people who could sense the changes coming. In Cadaques Edgar met people from The Contemporary Dance Ensemble of Paris and a memorable lady called Amanda. At the Paradiso, a small club, he would sit up through the night talking about philosophy and music.
The Ones spent four months in Paris, playing at Johnny Halliday's club for a while but making no money. They actually reached the stage where five of them were sleeping in the one room and they were buying horse meat and taking it to the Bois de Boulogne to cook over an open fire.
They played in a show with Jimmy Cliff at the Locomotive Club near the Moulen Rouge. ”We played soul numbers. We used to do ”Midnight Hour” three times a night – it was the best number we had!”
They moved back to Berlin and the group split up. The drummer had found a French girlfriend in Paris and stayed behind. The singer left. Edgar set about forming a new group. One which would play the sort of music that he was interested in.
By now the music of the great underground groups had reached Berlin: Zappa's ”Freak Out” and ”Absolutely Free” albums, The Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, The Doors... Edgar particularly liked the special modulation of Morrison's voice” and in the early days his new group did special arrangements of Doors numbers.
Hendrix also had a big impact. ”The biggest shock I ever got as a guitarist was to listen to Jimi Hendrix. I saw what could be done with the guitar... ”
Edgar formed Tangerine Dream in September 1967 and they rehearsed through the autumn and winter. Their first performance was in January 1968 at the Technical University in Berlin.
Their first lineup was:
Edgar Froese: lead guitar
Volker Hombach – flute and violin
Lange Hapshash - drums
Kirt Herkenberg – bass
Tangerine Dream was named from lines in ”Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds” from ”Sgt. Pepper”. The drummer was named after Hapshash and the Coloured Coat, the London underground poster makers Mick English and Nigel Waymouth who also cut a psychedelic album. The influence of the' underground scene was huge. Psychedelic clubs opened in Germany: ”Creamcheese” in Dusseldorf. ”Blow Up” in München. Edgar and the group were into the drug scene. They were an underground group but in the Berlin tradition.
The consumer aspect of flower-power didn't cut much ice-in Berlin where the main youth reaction was against the advanced materialism and prosperity of post-war Germany. They were experimenting with communal living, reading Wilhelm Reich, breaking through traditional German puritanism and looking for freedom through sex, drugs, music, new life styles and organisations. The new ideas from San Francisco and London were interesting and useful but the bells and beads side of it wasn't all that relevant if your commune was constantly under attack from armed police.
Tangerine Dream played at the famous Berlin underground club The Zodiac where one room was white and the other black. Looking back on that period Edgar reflected nostalgically, ”The best days I ever had were in the Zodiac Club in Berlin. Those three months. We played five or six hours each night. It was the best part I ever had in my musical life. It was totally free. These days I have to concentrate myself into this equipment. I sometimes get bored trapped behind those keyboards...”
The May 1968 Paris student uprising and its parallel demonstrations in Berlin had a big effect on the group. ”We were political. We tried to explain our feelings through our music. We played very hard stuff, smashed speakers up and everything.. . ”
Their audience was mostly university people, highly political students, often fresh from confrontation with the riot police and feeling really mean. Tangerine Dream's music reflected their feelings. It was totally free. It cut through all conventions. It was a complete break with the past. They did away with tunes – even tunes were a bourgeois relic of the old society. Everything had to be recreated new and in the present. They were loud, aggressive and heavy.
Tangerine Dream weren't the only underground group in Germany at this time. Most of what are now known as the experimental German rock bands had their birth pangs in the riotous summer of 1968: Jane, Agitation Free, Guru Guru Groove, Time Is Now, Kraan, Can, Ash Ra Tempel, Amon Düül and so on were all formed by people active at that time, most of them involved in the commune movement.
Tangerine Dream played on bills with Gunther Hampel and the great German free jazz sax player Peter Brötzmann. The only song that they did which was not their own was The Pink Floyd's ”Intersteller Overdrive” which they used the opening bars from as a jumping off point for free improvisation.
In September 1968 they played at the Internationalen Essener Song-Tagen, the biggest rock festival in Germany. On the same bill were Frank Zappa, Tim Buckley and the only other big German underground at that time, Amon Düül.
By this time Lanse Hapshash had been replaced by the Swedish jazz drummer Sven Johannson. They were beginning to reach a wider audience but in March 1969 the group split up. Volker Hombach left and is now a cameraman for Fassbinder. The others wandered off and Edgar got in a Liverpool drummer called Paul and a Dutch bass player.
This new lineup was shortlived. In fact it held together for only about four months during which time they did a small TV soundtrack before, running completely out of money and disbanding.
”I thought all the tine about experimental music. It was OK with rock music but I wasn't involved with just doing songs.”
It was in 1969 that Steve Jolliffe first met Edgar. Steve had been playing in Switzerland in 1968 with a group called The Joint. Also in The Joint was Richard Davis who went on to found Supertramp. While in The Joint Steve wrote the score for the movie ”The Happening”.
Though he was a self-taught musician, the director of “The Happening” suggested that he should go to Berlin to take the test to enter the Berlin Music Conservatory as a pianist. When he joined the Conservatory, he was the first person that they had ever accepted who could not read music.
He studied until 1969 and then left, after having met Edgar Froese in an electronic music studio. He joined Tangerine Dream, playing electric flute, and stayed until 1970.
Tangerine Dream was at that time a trio of drums, electric flute and with Edgar on guitar. Steve left to join the much more physical band Steamhammer.
In November, 1969, Edgar met Klaus Schultz. Together with Konrad Schnitzler they rented a factory floor and, using a two-track Revox, they made an experimental tape. Edgar played guitar and organ, Klaus was on drums and Conny Schnitzler on cello, violin and flute. They also used a cashregister with a contact mike on it. They smashed glasses and created all kinds of other soundeffects. They were getting closer to what Edgar wanted.
They took the tape to Rolf Kaiser's Ohr-Musik record company in Berlin and, strangely enough, they said ”OK. It's got no commercial chance but we'll take you. ”In fact Rolf-Ulrich Kaiser had already written about Tangerine Dream in his ”Das Buch Der Neuen Pop Music” which first appeared in 1969 and introduced Zappa, the Fugs, Dylan and the US West Coast underground groups to a wider German audience.
They did concerts all over the German-speaking parts of Europe, particularly in Austria. Then in 1970 Ohr released ”Electronic Meditations” with the Froese, Schultz, Schnitzler lineup. Their first album and the raw influences of Zappa and the Pink Floyd can still be felt among their own craziness.
Klaus Schultz left, going on to work with Ash Ra Tempel and then make a series of solo albums some of which are released in the UK by Virgin.
Early in 1971 Edgar met Christophe Franke (born in April 4, 1942) who was then playing with Agitation Free. Christophe had a reputation as one of the best young jazz drummers in Germany. He had studied with the Strasbourg Percussion Ensemble and done a six month experimental course at Nancy in France in which equal numbers of musicians and theatrical people discussed the relationship between music and the modern theatre. Agitation Free was a seminal group on the
German scene – as well as giving Christophe to Tangerine Dream it also provided members of Ash Ra Tempel and the short lived Timewind.
Christophe first saw Tangerine Dream playing at a little studio for experimental music in Berlin. ”They were making experiments with instruments and also with visuals with pictures and exhibitions.” It looked good to Christophe.
Edgar, Christophe and Conny Schnitzler did TV work and played at the Arts Lab in Vienna (this was another of the European imports from London, being based on the one in London). Then Konrad left.
He was replaced by Steve Schroyder and with him on organ they recorded ''Alpha Centauri”. ''Alpha Centauri” was their first really big success. It sold between 15 and 20,000 copies, which in Germany at that time and for that type of music, was a very good sale. It was recorded in engineer Dieter Dierks studio in Koeln and included on it two guest musicians: Udo Dennebourg on flute and Roland Paulyck on synthesizer. Then Steve Schroyder left.
They had-a number of people on organ before the line-up finally settled down.
Edgar looked around the clubs in Berlin until he finally found Peter Baumann.
Peter was playing organ with a rock band called The Ants, but left to join Tangerine Dream. With this lineup they cut ”Zeit”, their first double album, and at about the same time, early 1972, they recorded their first single “Ultima Thule Parts I and II” – a rock single with a fairly strong early Pink Floyd influence. Edgar described it to me: ”It’s about dope”. It has a lot of hard attacking energy and is in complete contrast to ”Zeit”. Collectors are now paying up to £10 a copy for it.
”Zeit” – Largo in four movements – had a number of guest musicians on it. Steve Schroyder returned to play organ, giving Peter more time to work with his VCS3 synthesizer. Florian Fricke from the group Popol Vuh played moog on one track and there were four cello players. This is the first time that Monique and Edgar's son Jerome makes an appearance on an album sleeve.
In June 1972, Tangerine Dream played at the Ossiach Festival. This was the last time they were to use conventional instruments: organ, guitar, drums. The festival was recorded and released as a double album by BASF Records as ”Ossiach Live”. The Tangs' track is called ”Oscillator Planet Concert”.
Then came ”Atem”, the last record that they did with Ohr-Musik. It was at this time that an unexpected new factor began to influence their career. Without it they might still be as obscure as many other German bands are to the British audiences.
They got their first telephone call from John Peel in November 1973. He had already written Edgar a letter – just a simple note saying that he was sitting in a hotel somewhere out in the country listening to records and that he just thought that he would write and let them know that he liked their music. That was all. One month later Monique Froese picked up the telephone and it was Peel again – saying the same thing. It was John who gave the group their underground reputation in Britain by talking about them. Playing their records on his programme, and finally by making ''Atem” his album of the year, six months after it had been released. They were probably better known in Britain than in their homeland. Many Germans thought that they were a British group.
They signed with a British record company – Virgin Records.
February 20, 1974 ”Phaedra” was released. Despite virtually no airplay, despite being their first British release and being a German band still living in Germany, the album reached the Top Ten. John Peel's programme had prepared an audience for it. Tangerine Dream made a soundtrack recording for the Chichester Festival production of “Oedipus Tyrannus” but the music was used unsympathetically and the results were disastrous.
The success of ''Phaedra” led to the group appearing in Britain. Their first British concert was at the Victoria Palace Theatre on June 16, 1974.
Their careers now shifted into top gear, albums and tours appear thick and fast in the chronology. On June 21st, 1974 Edgar released his first solo album, ”Aqua” which used the revolutionary new Artificial Head recording system invented by Gunther Brunschen. Edgar had been working on the album from November 1973 until March 1974 in Berlin. Chris Franke helped out on moog on one of the four tracks.
They finished off 1974 with a huge tour, doing twenty dates in Britain from November 26 until December 2nd and premiering their new videosynthesizer at a Rainbow concert. On December 13th they did the first of their cathedral concerts, designed to utilize the wonderful acoustics of such buildings and to make each concert into something a bit more than just a gig – more of a memorable event – for both the audience and themselves. Unfortunately 6,000 people crammed themselves into a medieval building which only holds 2,000 and the result was chaos – leading to international outrage.
January 1975 saw them back at Virgin's record studio The Manor set in the countryside near Oxford. This is where they recorded ”Phaedra” and now they were recording ”Rubycon ”. ”Phaedra” went gold in Australia and so they did a three week tour there in March.
”Rubycon” was released on March 21st and was an even greater success than ''Phaedra” . They sold out the Roval Albert Hall on April 2nd and in August they were special guests at the Orange Festival, held in the Roman amphitheatre in Orange in Southern France. Here they tried-out the new
equipment that they had bought with the money which came with the success of their album.
On September 14th they headlined the French Communist Party-sponsored ”Fete de I'Humanite” north of Paris. A crowd of 30,000 attended the concert which opened a French tour.
Through June and July Edgar had been working on a second solo album in Berlin and on September 28th ”Epsilon In Malaysian Pale ” was released, showing Edgar in a very lyrical and romantic mood.
From October 4 until the 23rd they did a twelve-date sell-out tour of Britain including three cathedral concerts: Coventry, Liverpool and York Minster. Tony Palmer filmed the Coventry Cathedral performance and it was shown on BBC-TV one year later.
The tapes from their British and French tours were examined and a certain amount of overdubbing done down at The Manor and Tangerine Dream's first live album was ready to go. ''Ricochet” was released on November 28th. It too entered the British charts. Christoph Franke described the record to me at the time: “We had to edit because the tapes of the concerts they are much too long to use in one context. So we had to hear horrible forty or fifty hours of music – kilometers of tapes – to find the most important parts of our concerts, the most typical things of us, typical of the last tour. And we are quite satisfied. We are very satisfied with the result. ”
From December until the end of February Tangerine Dream toured extensively doing concerts in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, France, Spain and Belgium and then in March of this year, began another unique project.
William Friedkin, director of ”The French Connection” and ”The Exorcist” had become a fan of their music. He proposed that they make the soundtrack for his next film. But this was not to be just an ordinary movie soundtrack. He wanted them to make the soundtrack before shooting actually began so that he could shoot in relation to the music. He had special speakers built with a crossover perfectly matched to play Tangerine Dream's music. They recorded it and Virgin Records released the soundtrack album in 1977.
In the meantime, as the result of negotiations with Virgin Records, their early albums began to be re-issued by Virgin: first “Zeit” which had previously only been available on import and then ”Alpha Centauri” and ”Atem” packaged together as a double. These had previously been issued by Polydor.
The Tangs did concerts in Manchester, Brighton and the Royal Albert Hall before touring Italy and Yugoslavia in June. Back in Berlin, they began work on their next album ”Stratosfear”, a radical departure from their previous albums it used recognisable instruments and recognisable melodies: piano, harpsichord, guitar and mouth-organ – were all there. There was even a snatch of the ”Moonlight Sonata” before Edgar improvised on it. It was the mouth-organ which seemed the most obtrusive to me. I asked Edgar about it: ”...I wanted a natural sound to make it sound more human. I was driving through Berlin and I saw a harmonica in the window of a music store and bought it. Everybody laughed about it but it really works…” He leaned forward and confided to me:
”Now I can tell the truth. My real love is the blues. I have all their records – Lightening Hopkins, Muddy Waters... They are my real love.”
”Blues is the point where everything came from. I think The Greeks, 2000 years ago, they played the blues. It's just trying to explain your life by music…”
To promote ''Stratosfear” in the USA, Tangerine Dream toured through March and April, 1977, bringing their European heavy metal to some of the best venues in North America including New York's prestigious Avery Fisher Hall. The majority of the concerts were complete sell-outs with tickets changing hands for up to $20.00 even though it was extremely unusual, if not unique, for a European band to make its first US tour as a headline act instead of as support. The Spring tour was also the first time that they used Laserium.
1977 saw a solo album for Peter Baumann called ”Romance'76” and rumours spread and were confirmed and denied that Peter was leaving the group. He wanted to spend more time working on his own projects in Berlin whereas at this point in Tangerine Dream's career, it was obvious that a heavy touring schedule was the order of the day.
A summer tour of the USA followed, combined with more rumours of Peter leaving the band however it wasn't until late in 1977 – that he finally made the break leaving Edgar and Christophe to find new members…
Steve Jolliffe, who had left T-Dream to join Steamhammer, wrote to Edgar in the Autumn and the two men came into contact again. Steve had been very busy during his time away. He had stayed with Steamhammer for eighteen months, during which time he wrote half of their album ”Steamhammer Mark II”. It was also during his time with them that he found out that the National Film School in London was providing grants for people to experiment with film and music.
Steve got more and more involved with films, particularly with animation and superimposition techniques, until by the end of 1976 he was working almost entirely with films and had written the music for several privately sponsored films.
In 1976 he built himself a small studio and concentrated on writing music for himself then, when Peter Baumann left the group. He was approached by Edgar who suggested that he might like to join them.
The other new member was drummer Klaus Krieger . .. Klaus had always lived in Berlin and first met Edgar back in 1962. He first began playing drums in 1965 but between 1969 and 1972 he combined this with his graphic art and design studies at Berlin Art School.
After completing his studies he decided to become a professional musician and moved to the Balearic Islands off Spain playing mainly with American musicians in the bars and clubs of Ibiza. He stayed there from 1972 until 1974 when he returned to Berlin.
He rented a factory flat together with six other guys. The people living there were all involved with the arts and the loft was always filled with music and art and sculpture. Stimulated by the surroundings his interest in sculpture led him to build his own drum set. The set he uses is completely hand built and incorporates some very special features.
He has always been in the friendship circle of Tangerine Dream from their very earliest days but it was in 1976 that he and Edgar first worked together and that was on Edgar's solo album ”Ages”. It was because of his experience of working with him then that Edgar decided that he would be a good addition to Tangerine Dream.
The lineup was now the present quartet: Edgar Froese, Christophe Franke, Klaus Krieger and Steve Jolliffe. The music changed accordingly, the biggest departure from the norm being vocals, written and sung by Steve Jolliffe. They entered Audio Studios in Berlin in January 1978 and came up with ”Cyclone ” .
It is once again a pleasure for Laser Images Inc., the producers 6f LASERIUM, to provide the live laser effects for the astounding TANGERINE DREAM. The success of the 1977 tour verifies the magical combination of TANGERINE DREAM and LASERIUM.
LASERIUM, the original Cosmic Laser Concert, LASERIUM II and LASEROCK have been experienced by over 5,000,000 people in the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan. The first LASERIUM concert was performed just over four years ago in Los Angeles, and now LASERIUM is featured live in 15 cities.
The laser effects you experienced are produced live by a laserist. The LASERIUM projector uses a one-watt Krypton gas laser as its light source, and refracts the tiny beam into four primary colors which travel through a series of optics to emerge as laser snowflakes or cloud formations suspended in space. This LASERIUM projector was especially designed for TANGERINE DREAM, and the custom made rear projection screen enables the live laser images to appear three-dimensional.
Ivan Dryer, 39, creator of LASERIUM and President of Laser Images Inc., has long been an admirer of TANGERINE DREAM. A well-known experimental and documentary film maker, Dryer wrote, edited, directed or photographed over 40 films during his 12-year career. He also produced ”Laserimage,” the earliest feature film comprised exclusively of laser effects. During the filming of Laserimage, ” Dryer recognized that the film medium did not adequately portray laser imagery. It was then that the LASERIUM concept was first conceived.
The corporate headquarters for Laser Images Inc. staff of 100 are located in Los Angeles. As the forerunner in the laser entertainment industry, Laser Images Inc. will continue to present the LASERIUM concept, produce special effects and introduce an innovative Dome Theater Complex, in which the interior spherical projection surface will be the largest in the world.
Ivan Dryer and the staff of Laser Images Inc. hope that you enjoy these laser effects created especially for TANGERINE DREAM.
Electronic Meditation – Brain Records [German import]
Alpha Centauri/Atem – Virgin Records VD2504
Zeit – Virgin Records VD2503
Phaedra – Virgin Records V2010
Rubycon – Virgin Records V2025
Ricochet – Virgin Records V2044
Stratosfear – Virgin Records V2068
Encore – Virgin Records VD2506
Cyclone – Virgin Records V2097
Aqua – Virgin Records V2016
Epsilon In Malaysian Pale – Virgin Records V2040
Macula Transfer – Brain Records [German import]
Romance '76 – Virgin Records V2069
======== The tour programme can also be downloaded as a PDF. ========